Wildlife,domestic animals and humans share a large and increasing number of , known as zoonoses. The continued globalization of society, human population growth, and associated landscape changes further enhances the interface between wildlife, domestic animals, and humans, thereby facilitating additional infectious diseases emergence. The wildlife component of this triad has received inadequate focus in the past to effectively protect human health as evidenced by such contemporary diseases such as;
West Nile Fever, and a host of other emerging diseases.
Further, habitat loss and other factors associated with human-induced landscape changes have reduced past ability for many wildlife populations to overcome losses due to various causes. This disease emergence and resurgence have reached unprecedented importance for the sustainability of desired population levels for many wildlife populations and for the long-term survival of some species.
1.What is Lyme disease?
Lyme disease is an infectious disease caused by the bacteria which is transmitted to humans by a bite from an infected black-legged or deer tick. The tick becomes infected after feeding on infected deer or mice. The tick has to be present on the skin for at least 24 to 48 hours to transmit the infection. Most people with Lyme disease have no memory of a tick bite.People who are likely to get infected by this disease are mostly those who live in wooded areas and those who spend time there. People with domesticated animals that are let out in wooded areas also have a higher risk of contracting Lyme disease.
Symptoms of Lyme disease
It occurs in three stages:
(a) early localized,, and
(b) early disseminated
(c) late disseminated
How to prevent Lyme disease
Ticks are mostly active during warmer months;
- Treat clothing and gear with products containing permethrin. Permethrin can be used to treat boots, clothing and camping gear and remain protective through several washings. Alternatively, you can buy treated clothing and gear.
- Wear long pants and long sleeve shirts when in the outdoors.
- Make your yard unfriendly to ticks by clearing wooded areas, keeping underbrush to a minimum, and putting woodpiles in areas with lots of sun.
- Be vigilant. Check your children, pets, and yourself for ticks. Don’t assume you can’t be infected again; people can get Lyme disease more than once.
People treated with appropriate antibiotics in the early stages of Lyme disease usually recover rapidly and completely. Antibiotics commonly used for oral treatment include doxycycline, amoxicillin, or cefuroxime axetil. People with certain neurological or cardiac forms of illness may require intravenous treatment with antibiotics such as ceftriaxone or penicillin.