In the round research 2, I'll mainly talk about how brain analyzes information and how the way affects the misunderstanding.
- There're two characters that brain deals with information which is named as System 1 and System 2. While System 1 is emotional and instinctive and fast thinking, System 2 is cautious and logical and is thinking slow. (1)
- System 1 operates effortlessly and automatically (eating, driving and performing other activities), System 2 operates cautiously and prevents us from jumping to conclusions. Both the systems could have a conflict between themselves and while System 1 could be inaccurate and performs actions based on heuristics, the System 2 evaluates the heuristics. (1)
- People usually don’t think slowly because it’s a lot of work and laziness is ingrained in our systems. (1)
- Another heuristic, known as the Cognitive Ease, where people tend to believe that actions that are easy to do are true when compared to anything that isn’t. This applies to advertisers, teachers, and marketers, and people believe them because they are familiar. This also makes us believe in lies if we hear it often. Furthermore, the human mind associates circumstances or events with each other to derive a meaning. When things don’t occur as we expected, we often convince ourselves with new stories and relate it to fate, destiny or divine intervention. (1)
- Intuitive information-processing has typically been considered irrational, but System 1’s fast thinking is often logical and useful. Conversely, despite being conscious and deliberate System 2 can produce poor (sometimes irrational) results. (2)
- Unlike perception, however, the operations of System 1 are not restricted to the processing of current stimulation. Like System 2, the operations of System 1 deal with stored concepts as well as with percepts, and can be evoked by language. (3)
- Intuition and Accessibility distinguish two generic modes of cognitive function: an intuitive mode in which judgments and decisions are made automatically and rapidly and a controlled mode, which is deliberate and slow. The section goes on to describe the factors that determine the relative accessibility of different judgments and responses. The second section, Framing Effects, explains framing effects in terms of differential salience and accessibility. The third section, Changes or States: Prospect Theory, relates prospect theory to the general proposition that changes and differences are more accessible than absolute values. The fourth section, Attribute Substitution: A Model of Judgment by Heuristic, presents an attribute substitution model of heuristic judgment. The fifth section, Prototype Heuristics, describes that particular family of heuristics. A concluding section follows. (4)
- The overall capacity for mental effort is limited, effortful processes tend to disrupt each other, whereas effortless processes neither cause nor suffer much interference when combined with other tasks. (4)
- Intuition is capable of quickly processing multiple pieces of information without noticeable cognitive effort. (5)
People are cognitive misers. When we get along with others, we tend to use the cognitive way of saving time and energy to understand the demeanor of others by intuition or existing impression. From Kahneman D.'s work, brain deals with information in two systems. System 1 is emotional and instinctive and fast thinking, System 2 is cautious and logical and is thinking slow. Although we have both of these options, people still habitually adopt the first approach because it is effortless for us, while the second approach requires more cognitive resources and attention. However, cognitive misgivings make our understanding of others errors. It makes it easy to overlook information and details that are different from past experiences.
- Kahneman, Daniel. Thinking, fast and slow. Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2015.
- Bhalla, Jag. “Kahneman's Mind-Clarifying Strangers: System 1 & System 2.” Big Think, 7 Mar. 2014, bigthink.com/errors-we-live-by/kahnemans-mind-clarifying-biases.
- Kahneman, Daniel. “A perspective on judgment and choice: Mapping bounded rationality.” American Psychologist, vol. 58, no. 9, 2003, pp. 697–720., doi:10.1037/0003-066x.58.9.697.
- “Http://Ljournal.ru/Wp-Content/Uploads/2017/03/a-2017-023.Pdf.” 2017, doi:10.18411/a-2017-023.
- Betsch, Tilmann, and Andreas Glöckner. “Intuition in Judgment and Decision Making: Extensive Thinking Without Effort.” Psychological Inquiry, vol. 21, no. 4, 2010, pp. 279–294., doi:10.1080/1047840x.2010.517737.