Round Research #1: How is misunderstanding produced and exerted?

As what I mentioned in the project plan: 

'When a misunderstanding occurs, the common excuse is 'you got me wrong, I didn't mean this', it means people tend to consider that receivers have responsibility for the mistake.' 

So in the round research 1, I'll discuss:

  • Why people always tend to believe what they want to believe
  • Most people don't listen to understand but listen to reply


  • Confirmation bias is the human tendency to seek, interpret and remember information that confirms pre-existing beliefs. (1)
  • Confirmation bias affects how you process what is otherwise neutral information and the information tends to favor oneself's beliefs. (1)
  • People seek evidence that confirms oneself's beliefs because being wrong feels crummy. Being wrong means someone isn't as smart as he thinks himself. So someone ends up seeking information that confirms what he has known. (1)
  • Confirmation bias occurs when people seek out or evaluate information in a way that fits with their existing thinking and preconceptions. (2)
  • The human understanding when it has once adopted an opinion (either as being the received opinion or as being agreeable to itself) draws all things else to support and agree with it. (3)

Conclusion #1: 

When people have stereotype images of individuals or certain groups, they will search evidence which corresponds to the stereotype images in both reality and memory, at the same time, people ignore facts which are opposite to their biases. In the process, people constantly prove themselves by finding out facts are completely same with what they think and the influence is further exerted. This is 'confirmation bias'.


  • Most people do not listen with the intent to understand; they listen with the intent to reply. (4)
  • Sigmund Freud made some useful contributions to psychology and one of them is a list of common defense mechanisms. (5)
  • These mechanisms include compensation, denial, displacement, identification, introjection, projection, rationalization, reaction formation, regression, repression, ritual& undoing, and sublimation. (5)
  • Freud’s defense mechanisms will now be applied to pride, ego, and self-esteem. That is, they will each be explained by how they serve to protect the ego from shame and ego pain. (5)
  • According to Freudian psychoanalytic theory, defense mechanisms are psychological strategies that are unconsciously used to cope with anxiety arising from unacceptable thoughts or feelings. (6)

Conclusion #2:

In connection with the need to maintain the self-esteem needs, many people get into the situation of ego-defense mechanisms. Under these circumstances, people will over-alert with others' actions and try to identify 'attacks' and 'injuries', or they'll concentrate on loopholes that others might exist for them to 'fight back' or 'revenge' at any time. While contacting with others, these people always care how they gain respect and how they act smart, so their attention is mainly attributed to concern how they respond successfully rather than understand others successfully. When people no longer try to understand each other, misunderstandings appear to be logical.


  1. Confirmation Bias: Why You Make Terrible Life Choices. (2018, January 29). Retrieved January 31, 2018, from
  2. Confirmation bias. (n.d.). Retrieved February 01, 2018, from https://www.behavioraleconomic...e/confirmation-bias/
  3. Confirmation Bias. (2015, November 06). Retrieved February 01, 2018, from
  4. Covey, S. R. (198981989). THE 7 HABITS OF HIGHLY EFFECTIVE PEOPLE. Free Press.
    ISBN 0-7432-6951-9
  5. FitzMaurice, M. K. (n.d.). Sigmund Freud 12 Defense Mechanisms & Self-Esteem Issues. Retrieved February 01, 2018, from
  6. Furnham, A. (2015, October 07). Ego Defence Mechanisms: The Work of Anna Freud. Retrieved February 01, 2018, from


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