Research Round #2 - How is education connected to intelligence and success?

Hi everyone!  

Welcome to my second research round for my inquiry question: “How is education connected to intelligence and success?”. In my first round, I talked about intelligence. In this post, I will be investigating into the concept of education. I’ll be delving into what education is defined by. Furthermore, I’ll be investigating its availability and who has access. I’ll also be doing various comparisons of education systems. In this second research round, I hope to make connections in this round with the relationship between the amount of schooling a person has with their IQ.

Let’s begin!

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What is education? 

-->Education is known to be the act of an individual developing or acquiring general knowledge. It grows your reasoning and judgement to help prepare for a mature life. Furthermore, it is also described to be a kind of schooling and the result of training (1). During this round, I will be principally combatting education in the definition of a schooling. 

--> Offering people the skills and tools they need to navigate in society, education gives opportunities. It also teaches individuals about the world they live in. This can be seen in courses including history, philosophy and culture. Without education, reading, writing, calculating or communicating would be difficult obstacles to face. There would be people demonstrating difficulties in performing jobs competently, accurately and safely (2).  

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What is an education system? 

-->The term education system is defined as public schooling. Thus, it is often does not refer the term private schooling. In general public instruction, students go through kindergarten through high school programs. 

-->It consists of various elements such as policies, regulations, public funding, resource allocations, state and district administrative offices, school facilities, human resources and equipment such as books and computers. Education systems are complex. Thus, it is a challenge to reform them (3).  

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What is a “quality education”? 

-->A quality education has resources and directs policy. It ensures that each child goes to school, regardless of any factors, and actively learns in a healthy physical and emotionally safe environment. It also implies that he or she should be challenged academically and prepare for success in future employment. The individual should have access to personalized learning, a range of services and is supported. While doing so, the child must be engaging in a healthy lifestyle.  

-->The outcomes of a quality education are needed to be that all individuals should prosper in their mature life and contribute to their communities. It is supported by three pillars that are included in the following: individuals should be ensured access to quality teachers, be provided with quality learning tools and has the right to have an established of safe and supportive environment (4). 

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What is its importance? 

-->Education is crucial because it gives individuals the skill and tools they need to navigate the world as adults. These skills include basic literacy, numeracy, communication capabilities, completion of tasks and collaboration with others. Furthermore, it’s important for every job and career. In other words, education makes a difference in an individual’s capability of performing a job safely and accurately.  

-->There are other beliefs. For example, Eleanor Roosevelt stated that education is essential to good citizenship. Moreover, she believes that schooling allows individuals contribute to their community and their country. Even so, some people think that education is important because it provides help in answering life's big questions, including questions of how to live, work and love. Others believe that education is crucial because it teaches people about the world around them (2). Why do you think education is important? Mention your thinking down below! 

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How does social and economic deprivation affect IQ? 

-->Social and economic deprivation evident play a strong role in affecting IQ. Research has found that children from households in poverty have lower IQs than do children from households with more resources (5, 7). The study was done with factors such as education, race, and parenting being controlled. Because poverty may lead to diets that are under nourishing or lacking in needed vitamins, poor children are more likely to be exposed to toxins. These include lead in drinking water, dust, or paint chips. As a result, inferior lifestyles can slow brain development and reduce intelligence (6, 7). 

-->Enriched environments also contribute to an individual’s intelligence. For example, some parents register their daughter or son in government-funded after-school programs such as Head Start. These initiatives are designed to help children learn. Research has found that attending such programs may increase intelligence for a short time, but there are no long-term improvements after the programs end (7). Even so, other studies suggest that Head Start and similar programs may improve emotional intelligence and reduce the likelihood that children will drop out of school or be held back a grade (7, 8). 

-->Intelligence is improved by education. It is found that the number of years a person spends going to school correlates with the amount of IQ they have. This may be because people with higher IQ scores enjoy taking classes more than people with low IQ scores. Consequently, they are more likely to stay in school and pursue post-secondary education (7).  

-->Intelligence increases with an earlier placement of a child in an education program. Comparisons between children who are almost exactly the same age but who just do or just do not make a deadline for entering school in a given school year show that those who enter school a year earlier have higher IQ than those who have to wait until the next year to begin school (9). Furthermore, it is found that when children are in school year-round, they have higher IQs. Children’s intelligence drops significantly during summer vacations which suggests that education systems with a longer school year are more beneficial. This is seen in countries in Europe and East Asia (10). 

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What different education systems are there in the world? 

-->Countries such as South Korea, Japan, Singapore, Hong Kong, Finland, United Kingdom and Canada rank the highest in the top 40 education systems in the world (11).  

-->There is talk about the need for global education reforms to better prepare students for life in the real world. The following are examples of different education systems in the world. 

            Australia                                           Image result for australia

Australia has the primary, secondary and tertiary levels in school. This type of school system is found in many western countries. In these schools, they cover topics such as math, English, sciences and the arts. To become a teacher in Australia, you have to complete a three-year degree. 

              India                                                 Related image

Schools focus on academics, not on arts. Subjects include math, science and English. Education is compulsory for children aged six to 14 and is very competitive. English speaking schools are held in extremely high regard.  

             Finland                                              Related image

In Finland, teachers in Finland are viewed with a high regard. They hold the same social status as doctors and lawyers. It's much harder to be a teacher in Finland than Australia. To become an instructor, one must have a Masters degree, and potential teachers can only ever be highest ranking students in their class. 

               Japan                                               Image result for japan city town

Japan's education is supported by private funding. Many Japanese families give their children much educational support at home. A lot of Japanese students stay in school for a long time due to this reason (12).

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During my next research round, I will be talking about more of the mental aspects of my question. For example, I’ll be delving into what happens in the mind when someone is demonstrating intelligence, what would make one person more “intelligent” than another, thoughts processes, difference the sizes of brain upon “intelligent” vs “not intelligent” individuals and cultural/sex differences. 

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Websites used: 

(1) https://www.dictionary.com/browse/education  

(2) https://www.reference.com/educ...ife-2c3b80038e953b9f  

(3) https://www.edglossary.org/education-system/  

(4) https://www.huffingtonpost.com...-qual_b_9284130.html  

(5) https://www.researchgate.net/p..._Poverty_on_Children  

(6) https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12890850  

(7) https://opentextbc.ca/introduc...suring-intelligence/  

(8) https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11343481  

(9) https://psycnet.apa.org/doiLan...i=10.1037%2Fh0026997  

(10) https://onlinelibrary.wiley.co...x#references-section  

(11) https://www.master-and-more.eu...ystems-in-the-world/  

(12) http://hijacked.com.au/differe...ems-around-the-world  

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Thanks for reading my post. Please feel free to leave any comments. They are always appreciated! 

-Alison 

Original Post

Hi Alison,

Reading your post I wondered about the whole notion of IQ.  If IQ is an inherent quality, like eye colour, how can it be influenced by education level?  IQ is, based on my reading of Stephen Jay Gould's Mismeasure of Man (http://biopolitics.kom.uni.st/...easure%20of%20Man%20(148)/The%20Mismeasure%20of%20Man%20-%20Stephen%20Jay%20Gould.pdf), is pretty much fraudulent.  It was designed to identify children with learning disabilities, not to rank or classify people.  From that point 'researchers' manipulated the test to 'prove' any number of things, including a racial basis for IQ.  I could have miss-read Gould, or he may not be correct, but it is definitely worth examining his argument if you are going to discuss the relationship between IQ and education.

Hey Allison,

Great research this week. Everything was very easy to read and informative. Personally, I think education in a public system not only teaches kids their basic "school subjects" but it also teaches them social skills; that is, how to act around others, how to communicate their ideas and do things like public speaking, and how to make friends/talk to others. To me, homeschooling lacks because it doesn't have the aspect of social interaction. Maybe you could briefly contrast the differences between homeschooling/online schooling and public/private schooling in terms of social skills and confidence.

If you choose to pursue that subject, here are a few sites you could use:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=w9OlhikDBDo
https://www.cdl.org/articles/s...l-skills-and-school/

Good luck
Joanna

Hi Alison,

Great round of research! I like how neat and organized it was and all the pictures you provided, and it was very detailed and informative. Great job! I agree that education is extremely important for future careers and being able to give back to your community and country in positive ways. Without education, I think that it would be hard to develop as a country/community, and it would lead to a less prosperous society. And not only does school teach us important academic knowledge and skills, but it allows us to communicate and collaborate with others, developing our social skills and allowing us to receive feedback from teachers in a safe and comfortable environment, preparing us for our future when we are less sheltered through life.

I think it will be really interesting to read what you find out in your next round of research about the relationship between brains and intelligence. I'm particularly curious to learn whether or not brain size really does correlate strongly to intelligence, or if it's just a myth that people have been led to believe. If it is true, it might be interesting to learn if there is a specific size of brain that is most ideal for optimal intelligence.

Here are some websites that might help you out for your next round of research:

https://www.scientificamerican...-brain-size-matter1/

http://www.neuwritewest.org/bl...ain-make-you-smarter

https://www.theatlantic.com/sc...ly-different/563702/

https://www.psychologytoday.co...nces-between-genders

Good luck!

Hey Alison,

Great work! This was a very detailed round of research that was easy to organize and was very informative. I was also wondering (like Joanna) the correlation between the public education system and social skills developed; it would be interesting to conduct a series of tests on groups of adolescents that had done online education all their life compared to those in the public education system to determine their competency socially. I'm excited to see what you find regarding whether cultural background has a general effect on intelligence; maybe you could look into intelligence due to nature vs nurture.

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