Hi hi,

Now I'll talk about my own research. In conclusion, I began to notice a pattern (remember patterns are very good). Many studies previously mentioned that VC is carcinogenic (can cause cancer), has properties that increases change/damage in DNA, can cause or increase risks of fatty liver damage/disease (steatohepatitis). But through my check list I saw two studies mentioned VC causes steatohepatitis, but they weren't as reliable as the other ones. So I wouldn't put as much weight to these claims. Here are the conclusions that they claimed and my checklist:


Conclusions from the articles

  1. “...Angiosarcoma of the Liver (ASL) is correlated with only high exposures over long periods...have pro mutagenic properties (and are responsible for substitution mutations found at A:T base pairs) [changes your DNA]” 
  2. “Toxicant-associated steatohepatitis (a type of fatty liver disease, characterized by inflammation of the liver with concurrent fat accumulation in liver) and liver cancer...Occupational exposure generated a distinct plasma metabolome with markedly altered lipid and amino acid metabolites.
  3. “increase in chromosome damage...demonstrated that females are more susceptible than males” 
  4. “cause mitochondrial damage…liver injury” 
  5. “toxicant‐associated steatohepatitis” 
  6. “Steatohepatitis was exceptionally common in this group of highly exposed VC workers...In fact, 80% of biopsied VC workers had steatohepatitis”
  7. “...Chloroethanol (a VC metabolite) promotes inflammatory liver injury caused by dietary fatty acids.”
  8. “lower VC levels exacerbate experimental nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) caused by high-fat diet...low-dose VC did not cause liver injury in control mice; while liver injury caused by HFD was enhanced by VC”
  9. “New molecular approaches for the prevention and treatment of VC cancers.”
  10. “Exposure to low-dose of environmental toxicant VC while a WD is consumed for a relatively short time does not have significant impact on cardiac remodeling except for a mild systolic dysfunction of the heart.”


Article Number

Study Type




Peer Review 


Overall Ranking of Article Reliability (F being least to A being most reliable)





















Side Notes:

  • When it came to how many articles the authors posted, the numbers were always all over the place. That was one of the most troubling parts of my research. 
  • All journals were peer-reviewed, and all authors had proper qualifications. This is a standard for almost all journals.
  • Many articles were animal studies, and while they can’t say for certain that a human can be affected the same way a mouse is, it is still valuable information. So I checked all animal studies as ⊝.

And I know what you’re wondering, am I gonna die if I'm sitting on a plastic chair? Short answer, yes, very painfully and slowly. Haha just kidding, from the research that I've done you probably won’t die. Plus chairs are usually made of other types of plastics, as Polyethylene terephthalate (PET/PETE), and the most common item that is made of PVC are pipes. People who work with PVC usually breathe in high contents of VC, because it is in a gaseous state. Unless you live right next to major PVC factories, you have a very low chance of being affected by Vinyl Chloride.

I think that's all for my research, if you've read it this late thanks and enjoy your summer.

Bibliography of Sources:

  1. Kielhorn, J., Melber, C., Wahnschaffe, U., Aitio, A., & Mangelsdorf, I. (2000). Vinyl Chloride: Still a Cause for Concern. Environmental Health Perspectives, 108(7), 579. doi: 10.2307/3434875
  2. Guardiola, J., Beier, J., Falkner, K., Wheeler, B., McClain, C., & Cave, M. (2016). Occupational exposures at a polyvinyl chloride production facility are associated with significant changes to the plasma metabolome. Toxicology And Applied Pharmacology, 313, 47-56. doi: 10.1016/j.taap.2016.10.001
  3. Wang, Q., Tan, H., Ma, X., Sun, Y., Feng, N., & Zhou, L. et al. (2013). Estimation of benchmark dose for micronucleus occurrence in Chinese vinyl chloride-exposed workers. International Journal Of Hygiene And Environmental Health, 216(1), 76-81. doi: 10.1016/j.ijheh.2012.02.008
  4. Anders, L., Lang, A., Anwar-Mohamed, A., Douglas, A., Bushau, A., & Falkner, K. et al. (2016). Vinyl Chloride Metabolites Potentiate Inflammatory Liver Injury Caused by LPS in Mice. Toxicological Sciences, 151(2), 312-323. doi: 10.1093/toxsci/kfw045
  5. Chiang, S. (1997). Mutagenicity of vinyl chloride and its reactive metabolites, chloroethylene oxide and chloroacetaldehyde, in a metabolically competent human B-lymphoblastoid line. Carcinogenesis, 18(1), 31-36. doi: 10.1093/carcin/18.1.31
  6. Cave, M., Falkner, K., Ray, M., Joshi-Barve, S., Brock, G., & Khan, R. et al. (2009). Toxicant-associated steatohepatitis in vinyl chloride workers. Hepatology, 51(2), 474-481. doi: 10.1002/hep.23321
  7. Anders, L., Yeo, H., Kaelin, B., Lang, A., Bushau, A., & Douglas, A. et al. (2016). Role of dietary fatty acids in liver injury caused by vinyl chloride metabolites in mice. Toxicology And Applied Pharmacology, 311, 34-41. doi: 10.1016/j.taap.2016.09.026
  8. Chen, L., Lang, A., Poff, G., Ding, W., & Beier, J. (2019). Vinyl chloride-induced interaction of nonalcoholic and toxicant-associated steatohepatitis: Protection by the ALDH2 activator Alda-1. Redox Biology, 24, 101205. doi: 10.1016/j.redox.2019.101205
  9. Brandt-Rauf, P., Long, C., Kovvali, G., Li, Y., Monaco, R., & Marion, M. (2012). Plastics and carcinogenesis: The example of vinyl chloride. Journal Of Carcinogenesis, 11(1), 5. doi: 10.4103/1477-3163.93700
  10. Liang, Y., Lang, A., Zhang, J., Chen, J., Wang, K., & Chen, L. et al. (2018). Exposure to Vinyl Chloride and Its Influence on Western Diet-Induced Cardiac Remodeling. Chemical Research In Toxicology, 31(6), 482-493. doi: 10.1021/acs.chemrestox.8b00043
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