Hello butterfly,it have been long since i last posted but i was doing researches for about three weeks and i have come across many researches like submarines earthquakes.

                Submarine earthquakes.

A submarine,undersea, or underwater earthquake is an earthquake that occurs underwater at the bottom of a large water body like an ocean and seas. They are the leading cause of tsunamis. The magnitude can be measured scientifically by the use of the moment magnitude scale and the intensity can be assigned using the mercurial intensity scale

Understanding plate tectonics helps to explain the cause of submarine earthquakes. The Earth's surface or lithosphere comprises tectonic plates which average approximately 50 miles in thickness, and are continuously moving very slowly upon a bed of magma in the troposphere and inner mantle. The plates converge upon one another, and one sub ducts below the other, or where there is only shear stress, move horizontally past each other. Little movements called fault creep are minor and not measurable. The plates meet with each other, and if rough spots cause the movement to stop at the edges, the motion of the plates continue. When the rough spots can no longer hold, the sudden release of the built-up motion releases, and the sudden movement under the sea floor causes a submarine earthquake. This area of slippage both horizontally and vertically is called the epicentre, and has the highest magnitude, and causes the greatest damage.

As with a continental earthquake the severity of the damage is not often caused by the earthquake at the rift zone, but rather by events which are triggered by the earthquake. Where a continental earthquake will cause damage and loss of life on land from fires, damaged structures, and flying objects; a submarine earthquake alters the seabed resulting in a series of waves, and depending on the length and magnitude of the earthquake, tsunami, which bear down on coastal cities causing property damage and loss of life.Submarine earthquakes can also damage sub marine communication cables leading to widespread disruption of the internet and international network in those areas. This is particularly common in Asia, where many submarine links cross submarine earthquake zones such as the pacific ring of fire.

            Earthquakes also affect marine life.

                   1.Coral reefs.

Whilst reefs in the South Island of New Zealand were effected, there are not any coral reefs located in this area.  However, many places that have earthquakes DO have corals reefs, and these fragile environments can be devastated by an earthquake or Tsunami.

Seismic activity not only lifts the ground, but it also moves it back and forth.  This shifting of the ground causes strong water movement and even tsunamis.  The combination of rapid water movement and landslides increases the amount of sediment in the water.  Sediment eventually settles and can end up covers coral reefs.  When sediment covers coral reefs, it blocks the amount of sunlight that the coral absorbs.  Coral reefs need sunlight to survive and reproduce.If coral reefs begin to die from the effects of increased sediment from an earthquake, the species that live in the reefs and fish that seek protection and food in the coral reefs will also begin to be affected.

                   2.Turtles and fish.

Earthquakes affect turtles in multiple ways.  Turtles can become stuck in debris left behind by the earthquake or block their path back to the ocean.  Increased water levels and even tsunamis have washed away turtle eggs from nesting beaches.Earthquakes cause infrastructure damage.  Toxic chemicals such as pesticides and gasoline are at risk of leaking and make their way into the ocean.  These toxic chemicals harm fish as well as the food that the fish consume.

              3.Mangrove forest.

The Mangrove root system filters pollutants to maintain the clarity of the water and protect the shoreline from strong waves.  A variety of fish, shrimp, crabs, and other species use mangroves to protect themselves from danger.It’s easy to see why the species that thrive within Mangrove forests decline significantly after a tsunami hits coastal areas.

An interview with the new Zealand Herald, Professor Jeff Shims, director of Victoria University’s Coastal Ecology Laboratory stated that The extent of this uplift is not yet clear  but without question, the affected areas will experience significant changes in the quantity and composition of marine life.  Recovery could take years, and the recovered state could look quite different.

Here are the links that helped me  to get information;

 

Original Post

Wow I loved your research, it is really in depth and easy to follow. I had never thought about how underwater earthquakes affect all the life in the sea. I was wondering if there is any way to help a coral reef after a tsunami, so I looked it up and I didn't really find an answer, but I did find an interesting article about how the coral reef in Bangkok, Thailand recovered from an earthquake. I found this article very interesting, since I have recently went snorkeling there and was wondering why there were patches of damaged coral. Originally I thought this was because of tourists, but now I see that there might have been a bigger reason. http://www.nbcnews.com/id/2838...sunami/#.XPW4GXdFxGw

I also came across a very interesting article that explains how the health of the coral reef can potentially protect us from tsunamis.  https://news.mongabay.com/2006...from-tsunami-damage/

Anyways, I thought your research was very interesting!

Good luck on your future research,

Jasmine P

Hi Wallace,

Really well done! I liked how you did your explanation of tectonic plates for people to understand what goes on to cause earthquakes. I find that there are also a lot of really helpful diagrams that describe features such as convergence and divergence (movements of plates that cause earthquakes and volcanic activity). For your next round, maybe you could look into how earthquake intensity and magnitude are measured. Good luck, keep it up!

Hi Wallace!
Fantastic research! I found it very easy to understand but still so informative! It makes sense that earthquakes would affect marine life, but the thought would’ve never came to mind if I didn’t read about it! It makes me wonder how the marine animals actually respond to earthquakes and what they do. Maybe if your interested you could research that next round! Here’s a website to help you out:
https://biotaaquariums.com/ear...-impact-marine-life/

Good luck!

Hello Wallace,
Excellent post! I especially liked the way that you dived into what Submarine earthquakes are, and how they are caused before you went into what they affected. I found this especially helpful as I had never heard of the term “submarine earthquakes” before. I honestly had never even known that submarine earthquakes caused damage other than tsunami’s. It is quite an interesting outlook on how destructive things can be even in locations where they aren’t generally considered to be dangerous. Quite possibly you could look into other natural disasters that are thought of inconsequential in certain circumstances.

If you do decide to look further into earthquakes, possibly these sites may be of use:
http://www.geo.mtu.edu/UPSeis/hazards.html
https://topex.ucsd.edu/es10/es...ith.pics/node10.html
https://www.brighthubengineeri...mages-in-earthquake/

If you decide to look into other natural disasters, these may be more helpful:
https://www.infoplease.com/enc...caused-by-hurricanes (Hurricanes)
https://www.cdc.gov/disasters/volcanoes/facts.html (Volcanic Eruptions)
https://sciencing.com/damages-...s-cause-7551542.html (Tsunamis)
https://www.weatherwizkids.com/weather-tornado.htm (Tornadoes)

Hey Wallace;

You've got a really educative research on submarine earthquakes.I have got to know that,almost every year, a large earthquake occurs somewhere in the world and captures the public's attention. Meanwhile, every day thousands of smaller tremors often go unnoticed by most people. Although we usually consider the ground to be solid and stable.Most of the major earthquakes strike on well-known fault lines. 

Great post!

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