1885 - “The first artificial Heart-lung apparatus for organ perfusion studies,” (Echo.gmu.edu, 2019) was built. The device works only with thinned out blood. It includes “heating and cooling chambers, manometers, and sampling outlets, which permits monitoring of temperature, pressure, and blood gases during perfusion.” (Echo.gmu.edu, 2019) (Doctors: M. Von Frey and M. Gruber, Location: Leipzig).
First Artificial Heart:
1913 - The first idea of having an artificial kidney “made of collodion (a syrupy solution of proxylin, the flexible type is often used as a surgical dressing) and using hirudin anticoagulant (a naturally occurring peptide in the salivary glands of blood-sucking leeches that has a anticoagulant property, often used to prevent blood clots following surgery) .” (Echo.gmu.edu, 2019). The idea coming from the hemodialysis (a process of purifying the blood of a person whose kidneys are not functioning properly) of rabbits, dogs and later in humans and having that same property in an artificial kidney (Doctors: J.J Abel, L.C. Rowntree and B.B. Turner, Location: John Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore).
1927 - “The first ‘Sandwich’ artificial kidney using a biological membrane,” (Echo.gmu.edu, 2019) that allows for removing excess water, solutes and toxins from the blood. (Doctor: H. Nichelle, Location: Beijing).
1929 - Doctors were able to keep dog’s heads functioning (just the head, no other body parts attached). They used donated lungs and a pump for blood circulation (Doctors: S. Brukhonenko and S. Tchetchuline, Location: Russia).
1943 - “A rotating drum artificial kidney and later the Kolff-Brigham dialyzer” (Echo.gmu.edu, 2019) was created and was used very often throughout the fifties (Doctor: W. Kolff, Location: Boston).
1945/1946 - “The first stationary drum artificial kidney and the first artificial ultrafiltration kidney capable“ (Echo.gmu.edu, 2019) was created. (Doctor: N. Alwall, Location: Sweden).
1953 - “The first successful clinical use of the heart-lung machine for cardiac surgery,” (Echo.gmu.edu, 2019) was done (Doctor: J. Gibbon, Jr., Location: Philadelphia).
1957 - A completely artificial heart was implanted in a dog, staying alive with it for 90 minutes (Doctors: W.J. Kolff, T. Akutsu and team, Location: Cleveland).
1960 - First successful prosthetic valve operation (Doctor: Albert Starr, Location: Portland).
1963 - “An experimental artificial liver utilizing extracorporeal metabolism with sliced or granulated canine liver.” (Echo.gmu.edu, 2019) (Doctors: Nosé Y., Mikami J., Kasai Y., Sasaki E., Agishi T. and Danjo Y.).
1966 - “The first successful clinically implanted ventricular assist device (pneumatically-driven paracorporeal diaphragm pump)” (Echo.gmu.edu, 2019) in a middle aged woman. (Doctor: M.E. DeBakey, Engineer: D. Liotta, Location: Houston).
1967 - First cardiac transplant in a human (Doctor: Christian Barnard, location: South Africa).
1969 - First clinically implanted completely artificial heart (pneumatically-powered) into a middle aged man who survives ninety-six hours. (Doctor: D.A. Cooley, Engineer: D. Liotta).
1969 - First implantation of a prosthetic heart valve on a human (Doctors: Cooley D., Liotta D., Hallman GL., Bloodwell RD., Leachman RD. and Milam RC.).
1970 - First ventricular defibrillation system (experimental). The implanted system works to automatically defibrillate the heart, rather than having to use a defibrillator machine (Doctors: Schuder JC, Stoeckle H., Gold JH., West JA, Keskar PY.)
1978 - A permanent left ventricular system is implanted on a man (Doctors: Portner PM., Oyer PE, Jassawalla JS, Miller PJ, Chen H., Lafroge DH, Skyette KW.).
1978 - “BioMedicus disposable centrifugal pump” (Echo.gmu.edu, 2019) is commercially sold (an artificial heart). (Designed by: H. Kletschka).
1982 - Patients who undergo surgery and get an artificial heart and survive 112 days with it, then get a more upgraded permanent artificial heart called Jarvik-7 (Doctors: W. DeVries, Engineers: W. Kolff and team, Location: Salt Lake City).
1984 - First successful clinically implanted system that is electrically - powered (called the Novacor LFVA) is implanted into a male patient (Engineer: P. Portner).
1986 - The first idea of an artificial liver using porcine hepatitis (a virus), (Described by DeMetriou).
1994 - “FDA approved of the pneumatically-driven HeartMate LVAD (the first pump with textured blood-contacting surfaces).” (Echo.gmu.edu, 2019).
1998 - FDA approved of (HeartMate VE and Novacor LVAS) electrically-powered, wearable assist systems. They are used in more than 4,000 procedures to date.
Left Ventricle Assist Device:
1999 - First clinically fully-implantable circulatory support system (LionHeart LVAS) is implanted into two patients.
2002 - “FDA approval of the HeartMate VE LVAD for permanent use.” (Echo.gmu.edu, 2019).
Bibliography: Echo.gmu.edu. (2019). Artificial Organ History: A Selective Timeline. [online] Available at: http://www.echo.gmu.edu/bionics/exhibits.htm [Accessed 5 May 2019].