Measures to prevent animal wildlife diseases
The control of diseases shared with wildlife requires the development of strategies that will reduce pathogen transmission between wildlife and both domestic animals and human beings. This review describes and criticizes the options currently applied and attempts to forecast wildlife disease control in the coming decades. Establishing a proper surveillance and monitoring scheme (disease and population wise) is the absolute priority before even making the decision as to whether or not to intervene.
Disease control can be achieved by different means, including:
- preventive actions, host population control through random or selective culling, habitat management or reproductive control, arthropod vector control and vaccination.
- The alternative options of zoning or no-action should also be considered, particularly in view of a cost/benefit assessment. Ideally, tools from several fields should be combined in an integrated control strategy. The success of disease control in wildlife depends on many factors, including disease ecology, natural history, and the characteristics of the pathogen, the availability of suitable diagnostic tools, the characteristics of the domestic and wildlife hosts and vectors, the geographical spread of the problem, the scale of the control effort and stakeholders’ attitudes.
- The key requisite for any disease control in wildlife is that of establishing a proper surveillance and monitoring scheme. Surveillance and monitoring build on the steady collection, collation, and analysis of data related to animal health but differs at the aim and target population. Surveillance targets wildlife populations classified as healthy to demonstrate the absence of infection. Conversely, monitoring focuses on known infected wildlife populations aiming to detect spatial and temporal trends. Disease control measures are only undertaken when disease is present; therefore, from now on this paper will focus on monitoring (since surveillance is applied when infection is absent). After disease discovery, descriptive studies are needed in order to assess whether the disease and the role of wildlife is relevant for public or animal health or for wildlife conservation and management. If this is the case, then wildlife diseases must be monitored by defining the key wildlife hosts, host population background data and samples; choosing the appropriate methods for diagnosis and for space-time trend analysis, and establishing a reasonable sampling effort with suitable sample stratification
RABBIES is a virus that is usually spread by the bite or scratch of an animal. By the time the symptoms appear, it is generally too late to save the patient.
- Anyone who receives a bite in a geographical area where rabies occurs should seek treatment at once.
- For treatment to be successful, it must be given before symptoms appear.
- Symptoms include neurological problems and a fear of light and water.
- Following the vaccination requirements for pets helps prevent and control rabies.
Rabies is most common in countries where stray dogs are present in large numbers, especially in Asia and Africa.
It is passed on through saliva. Rabies can develop if a person receives a bite from an infected animal, or if saliva from an infected animal gets into an open wound or through a mucous membrane, such as the eyes or mouth. It cannot pass through unbroken skin.
- Vaccinate pets: Find out how often you need to vaccinate your cat, dog, ferret, and other domestic or farm animals, and keep up the vaccinations.
- Protect small pets: Some pets cannot be vaccinated, so they should be kept in a cage or inside the house to prevent contact with wild predators.
- Keep pets confined: Pets should be safely confined when at home, and supervised when outside.
- Report strays to the local authorities: Contact local animal control officials or police departments if you see animals roaming
- Do not approach wild animals: Animals with rabies are likely to be less cautious than usual, and they may be more likely to approach people.
- Keep bats out of the home: Seal your home to prevent bats from nesting. Call an expert to remove any bats that are already present.