Proactive VS. Reactive Aggression

In my last post, I stated that the significance of genetics could not be ignored when determining whether criminal behaviour was inherited or learnt. I focused on a story of a serial killer and the results of twin studies to prove my point. In this post, I would like to introduce the two forms of aggression and compare between the people who display these behaviours: proactive aggression and reactive aggression.

Proactive aggression is a calculated goal-oriented method of hurting others. Examples of this would include revenge crimes—when person A intentionally plans and harms person B for maltreating person C (someone who is important to person A). On the other hand, reactive aggression results in “crimes of passion” where the assailant is driven by impulse to harm their victim(s). For instance, person A insults person B who, in his fit of anger, assaults person A. These two types of aggression are consistently demonstrated by violent criminals albeit two different types. The first form of aggression is found in almost every psychopathic serial killer there has been, as psychopathic criminals are more likely to engage in proactive aggression than non-psychopathic criminals. They meticulously structure and execute the killings of multiple victims over and over, usually to fulfill their bizarre needs. The latter form is found in most offenders—those who lack the ability to contain their anger and cannot resist the temptation of a fight. Both groups of criminals break laws and hurt others, but is there a difference in their biological makeup that sets them apart from each other and the peaceful majority of people?

Psychopaths are calculating, meticulous planners with high executive functioning and charming personalities. Some deviate from the law and are serial killers, using predatory violence to attack their victims. With their beguiling charm, no one could ever tell they had the potential to kill. “Jolly” Jane Toppan is a good example of a murderous psychopath who showed no trace of violence or deviation from your typical, friendly nurse. She worked at Cambridge Hospital in 1885, where she would stealthily inject elderly patients with an overdose of morphine and watch as they sank into comas. Then, she would revive them with atropine and observe in gratification as her victims died a slow death. She was a proactive murderer with an extremely unstable childhood and defective amygdalae and ventral prefrontal cortex, which would explain her ability to kill innumerably and the absurdity of her case.

Contrastingly, most serial offenders are affective attackers (those who attack in reaction to something else). These impulsive criminals biologically deviate from the rest of us peaceful citizens in a number of ways: low serotonin, MAO-A deficiency, and less active prefrontal cortex regions that help regulate and control our emotions. Serotonin is an inhibitory neurotransmitter set in place to balance excitatory neurotransmitters, such as dopamine.

Lower levels of serotonin can lead to depression, sleeplessness, and indirectly affect the ability to inhibit rash actions such as violence. Proven in numerous rat and human studies, serotonin deficiency leads to reduced activity of the frontal lobe, weaker connection between the frontal lobe and amygdalae, and high levels of aggression. MAO-A, or monoamine oxidase A, is an enzyme involved in the breakdown of neurotransmitters such as dopamine and serotonin. MAO-A deficiency is a rare disorder that occurs exclusively in males and also damages one’s ability to control their impulses. Beyond biology, children with reactive aggression are more likely to have social information processing deficits and have been physical abused.

Comparing PET scans of the brains of “normal” (law-abiding) controls, reactive murderers, and proactive murderers, it has been found that both proactive and reactive murderers have more activity in the subcortical limbic regions of their brain. This region includes the thalamus, the amygdalae, and the hippocampus, where aggression is stimulated and modulated (think back to the structures I focused on in my ‘neurological roots of racism’ research).

Remember how those impulsive criminals have poor prefrontal cortex functioning? When reactive murderers are riled up, they cannot help but retort immediately in aggravation. As you can see up above, their frontal lobes are green whereas the normal control and proactive murderer scans show yellow and red, signs of clear activity. Thus, proactive murderers have the prefrontal capabilities to express their aggression in a premeditated manner. They regulate their emotions, but only enough to be able to carefully plan and carry out assaults. This is ultimately what differentiates proactive murderers and their predatory approach of stalking and killing their victims to reactive murderers who retaliate when provoked.

From all this research, it's clear to say that proactive aggression and reactive aggression are quite different from each other and stem from varying biological factors. In my next posts, I will be furthering my research by looking into biomarkers, psychopaths, and antisocial behaviour.

Thank you so much to everybody who has taken the time to read this long post!


https://ibpsych.themantic-educ...otonin-and-violence/

https://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condit...oxidase-a-deficiency

https://blog.cognifit.com/func...-dopamine-serve-you/

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Original Post

Hi Erica, I enjoy reading your post. From your post, I learned the difference between 2 types of aggression, from my understanding, it looks like one crime is well planned but another one is randomly created without choosing specific person or place. Anyway, I look at your resources, you did a very good job to tidy this information. I can't wait for your next post, it's so interesting.

 

Hi Erica, 

This is such an intriguing post, once I started reading I couldn't stop! It is so interesting how you compared the aggressions and how they are reactive and proactive. I thought a lot about the reactive one, how two completely different people could be faced in the same situation, "crime of passion", but depending on how their brain functions, they can react completely differently. The story about Jane Toppan is truly sickening and twisted to a point that only her brain functions can explain it. Also, do you notice that there are many similarities in the proactive brain and the normal brain? This could be something to discuss next week. 

Best of luck!

Hello Erica,

This is a very interesting topic you're researching. Your post has given me an insight into the possible motives and feelings that high-risk criminals have had. I never really thought of the chemical balance in the brain as a major factor in motivating someone into committing crimes. I wonder, could aggression be simulated by something independent of the brain? It makes me wonder how many Jane Toppan's there are around us but are just unknown to us. Great post, looking forward to reading more about your research!

HELLO ERICA!

this is a very educative research. i really enjoyed reading it and i learned a lot about the two types of aggression. I had also followed your last post and got to learn the connection of aggression and genetics.

'serotonin deficiency leads to reduced activity of the frontal lobe, weaker connection between the frontal lobe and amygdalae, and high levels of aggression'   

'proactive murderers have the prefrontal capabilities to express their aggression in a premeditated manner. They regulate their emotions, but only enough to be able to carefully plan and carry out assaults. This is ultimately what differentiates proactive murderers and their predatory approach of stalking and killing their victims to reactive murderers who retaliate when provoked'.(copied from your post), from this this two paragraphs is it really possible for the government to offer medical care to the proactive murderers rather than giving them life time jail sentence?

 

Sarnaver Mwende (Alumni) posted:

HELLO ERICA!

this is a very educative research. i really enjoyed reading it and i learned a lot about the two types of aggression. I had also followed your last post and got to learn the connection of aggression and genetics.

'serotonin deficiency leads to reduced activity of the frontal lobe, weaker connection between the frontal lobe and amygdalae, and high levels of aggression'   

'proactive murderers have the prefrontal capabilities to express their aggression in a premeditated manner. They regulate their emotions, but only enough to be able to carefully plan and carry out assaults. This is ultimately what differentiates proactive murderers and their predatory approach of stalking and killing their victims to reactive murderers who retaliate when provoked'.(copied from your post), from this this two paragraphs is it really possible for the government to offer medical care to the proactive murderers rather than giving them life time jail sentence?

 

Hey Sarnaver,

You are correct! Instead of being punished in the form of jail, they should be given the option of receiving psychological help. This way we are encouraging empathy in those who have difficulty regulating their emotions. However, this may not be as effective in proactive serial murderers as they typically lack the moral reasoning necessary to comprehend the wrongness of certain actions. As with "Jolly" Jane, she knew the severity of her actions but she felt immense gratification watching her victims in pain. She was a sadist, whether that be innate or acquired. In her circumstance, it would be impossible to change her predatory instincts through external factors (jail time, medical care, et cetera). Unless we can carefully rewire her brain, physically or psychologically, through lengths of time and great motivation to change on her part, I cannot see another way the government would be able to "help" her. I may look into this later on in my research, though. Thanks for bringing this up!


Erica Won.

Hello Erica, 

Interesting research! It is fascinating how slight differentiations in neural chemistry can have such drastic effects. You were very articulate and your thesis was very well supported! I do have one criticism though. You refer to people as "criminal" and "non-criminal," "murderers" and "peace-abiding citizens," and use other dichotomy classifications but I think you need to be careful with this. While it is easy to separate things using antonyms and dichotomies most things in life are on a scale and are very dependent on variables. For instance, just because someone's brain shows normal on a PET scan doesn't mean that they are incapable of reactive murder or even pre-meditated murder when given the right circumstances. Additionally, is it not possible for a "reactionary murderer" (someone with reduced prefrontal functioning on a PET scan) to live a completely harmless and law abiding life given the right circumstances? While there are definite trends, which you picked up on very well by the way, many neurological alterations are circumstantial. I'm sure you know this but it may be pertinent to touch on this in future posts. 

Don't get me wrong, this really was exceptional research!!!

Ben Laird

Ben Laird (LFAS) posted:

Hello Erica, 

Interesting research! It is fascinating how slight differentiations in neural chemistry can have such drastic effects. You were very articulate and your thesis was very well supported! I do have one criticism though. You refer to people as "criminal" and "non-criminal," "murderers" and "peace-abiding citizens," and use other dichotomy classifications but I think you need to be careful with this. While it is easy to separate things using antonyms and dichotomies most things in life are on a scale and are very dependent on variables. For instance, just because someone's brain shows normal on a PET scan doesn't mean that they are incapable of reactive murder or even pre-meditated murder when given the right circumstances. Additionally, is it not possible for a "reactionary murderer" (someone with reduced prefrontal functioning on a PET scan) to live a completely harmless and law abiding life given the right circumstances? While there are definite trends, which you picked up on very well by the way, many neurological alterations are circumstantial. I'm sure you know this but it may be pertinent to touch on this in future posts. 

Don't get me wrong, this really was exceptional research!!!

Ben Laird

You bring up an excellent point! It's impossible to know just from a PET scan, or any examination of a brain's composition, whether someone will commit murder. The "normal" controls have clean records, which is why I called them law-abiding. Furthermore, anyone is capable of murder and having a "normal" brain does not guarantee one is incapable of committing murder, whether it stem from predatory or reactionary violence. And yes, not everyone with reduced prefrontal cortex functioning will become criminals. It suggests the possibility of antisocial behaviour, as I have stated in my post, but it does not promise criminal activity. I believe that with further technological advancements and research surrounding this neurological approach of criminology, an accurate method of predicting criminal behaviour in people will be achieved. However, do note that criminals are both born and made. No PET scan will determine whether any of us are criminals.

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